The first step needed to improve any situation is to admit that you have a problem.
In his Washington Post article “We think our enemies are idiots, and that’s a problem – The psychological explanation for our partisan strife,” psychologist and college professor Adam Waytz suggests that among the causes that prevent people from effectively working together to resolve problems is the belief that others, especially those who disagree with us, have lesser minds. Waytz and his colleagues have coined this as “the lesser minds problem.” He goes on to state that “Physiological research shows that in virtually every way, we assume that the minds of our peers are less rich than our own minds.”
Those with “lesser minds”—i.e., “the idiots”—are thought to be less sophisticated, thoughtful and empathic, with a lower capability for reason, emotion and discipline. Waytz further states that “The minds of our peers may seem lesser, but the minds of our political opponents seem downright moronic.”
Given that someone will disagree with us and we will disagree with others, everyone may be considered an idiot by someone at one time or another.
In my article “Improving Health Care – A Better Way,” I introduce the work of Jonathan Haidt, who also identified a theory to help explain conflict between people that may account for some of the political polarization.
“Haidt’s research indicates that moral responses are instinctual—human beings are born preloaded with basic moral values. He believes that political attitudes are an extension of our moral reasoning, which accounts for much of the vitriol that surrounds liberal and conservative ideology.
According to Haidt, an individual’s beliefs and actions are influenced through a filter of values that include caring, fairness, loyalty, authority, sanctity and liberty. These values provide a foundation that is needed for a society to function. He believes that liberals focus more on caring and fairness and undervalue the importance of loyalty, authority, sanctity and liberty. Conservatives also value caring and fairness, but not at the exclusion of loyalty, authority, sanctity and liberty.”
Within the workforce, assessment tools are often used to help develop an awareness and understanding of individual differences and preferences. The Myers-Briggs Personality Type (there are 16 types), PACE Palette (where individual preferences are associated with colors and colors to preferences), the Five Factor Model and American Management Association’s Directing, Influencing, Supportive, and Contemplative (DISC) framework can provide opportunities to recognize and understand differences, with the intent of utilizing more of everyone’s potential. However, as Waytz points out:
“Bridging the gap between our own minds and other minds requires colossal efforts of deliberation, humility and cooperation, but recognizing why this gap exists to begin with can help start us on our way.”
In assessments such as the Myers-Briggs Personality Type and the PACE Pallet, it may not be too surprising to find that 80% of the individuals within an organization fall within just 25% of the categories. Consequently, this would result in a lack of diversity among personality types and preferences, which may inhibit an organization’s ability to effectively and efficiently utilize the potential of its most important asset—its people.
Another tool used by many organizations is the strategic plan, which typically includes an organization’s vision, mission, values, goals and objectives. Organizations use this tool to unify employees so that they are working to achieve a common aim.
In the federal government, the ability of an organization’s leaders to execute their strategy using traditional approaches for leveraging their “most important asset” can be assessed by:
- Reviewing the results published in the annual Statement of Assurance (SoA), which is a requirement of the Federal Managers Financial Integrity Act (FMFIA). This act requires agency leaders to “assure” the effective and efficient utilization of all assigned resources (financial and human).
- Reviewing the trends revealed by the Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS), which are published in the Best Places to Work rankings.
Bridging the Divide – A Better Method
Waytz reinforces that judgments regarding the variation between people can become a self-fulfilling prophecy:
“If we believe our political opponents are as rational, thoughtful and empathic as we are, then we are likely to pursue political compromise through rational debate, civil discussion and collaborative analysis of the facts. But if we think our opponents are mindless, then itional bias rather than objectivity.”t makes sense to forgo civility and push our opinions across the table with brute force and discount any counterarguments as rooted in irrational bias rather than objectivity.”
The contributions of W. Edwards Deming in helping organizations and industries do the right things were recognized by the editors of FORTUNE magazine as among the greatest contributions in business history. Deming felt that American management failed to tap the potential of all employees. As a result, he believed that the United States was one of the most underdeveloped nations in the world. He also remarked that if he were to reduce his message to just a few words, it all had to do with reducing variation.
“Businesses” are organizations that consist of people. Put another way, the Deming application framework for improving individual and group capability by reducing variation may be among the greatest contributions in human history.
The underlying premise of the Deming application method includes the following:
- Every individual is unique. As a result, each individual will have unique potential and capabilities.
- People can agree on facts and ideals. Within organizations, ideals are expressed in vision statements and facts are provided in accounting and performance-related reports.
- People can find common causes to problems, can choose to agree to disagree and then can choose to work together to get results where everyone wins. For example, when discussing the gap between the ideal end state expressed in the vision and the actual performance that occurs as part of a strategic assessment, organizational leaders can develop a consensus on the actions that need to be taken to close the gap (i.e., reduce variation).
- People will always have different opinions, beliefs, perceptions, values, norms, morals and theories as to the identification of problems, their root causes and the solutions to solve those problems. These differences are fundamental to understanding, learning and improvement. An organization that “learns” leverages the diversity in the workforce to identify and implement better solutions.
- There will never be the “perfect answer” in any given situation. The number of solutions could be infinite, but when implemented, some solutions will have better results than others in the near, mid and long term. Deming advocated the application of the Shewhart cycle for learning and development.
The Shewhart cycle consists of four phases:
- Plan a change or test aimed at improvement.
- Carry out the change or test, preferably on a small scale.
- Study the effects to help ensure that the change minimized the cost of the two types of mistakes—treating common-cause variation as special-cause variation and vice versa—that can be made. This information is the basis for determining if change resulted in improvement.
- Act on what was learned.
Applying Deming-based methods requires an understanding and basic knowledge of the interrelationships between people, systems and their respective variability. This awareness and insight leads to the “new knowledge” that is needed for helping determine when changes to policies, systems and processes result in improvement.
The U.S. Founding Fathers applied an unconscious or intuitive understanding of these principles when they designed the U.S. political system. The justice system also integrates these principles. I provide a little more background on this in my paper “Drive Out Fear: Having the Courage To Do The Right Thing,” which I presented at the Deming International Research Seminar.
A Way Ahead
French intellectual and author Marcel Proust remarked that “The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes but in having new eyes.”Bridging the gap Waytz identified between our own minds and other minds requires “new eyes” and a method.
Deming provides the new eyes and the method that successful leaders have always used on an unconscious or intuitive level when leading others to achieve success.
A more common knowledge (conscious awareness and understanding) is an alternative for getting past individual differences. With conscious awareness and understanding, you can accept the fact that individuals vary and choose to develop more positive relationships with those individuals opposing your point of view instead of considering them enemies or idiots.
The more pervasive application of the Deming principles and methods has the potential to support a new era of leadership that is critical in addressing the challenges of our times. These challenges include unemployment, underemployment, adequate healthcare, national and economic security and a better method for exercising our individual and collective responsibility to take action that results in progress toward achieving the more perfect union our Founding Fathers envisioned.
Deming’s genius in providing the framework needed to successfully address these challenges may one day be considered as among the greatest contributions in human history.