What Happens to Your Pay During a Shutdown?

December 9, 2015 5:24 AM , Updated July 6, 2019 10:00 PM
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The possibility of a shutdown is again facing federal employees at the end of the week. What impact does a partial government shutdown have on your pay should one take place?

The guidance below is taken from the Office of Personnel Management’s Guidance for Shutdown Furloughs. For complete details, see OPM Updates Shutdown Furlough Guidance for Federal Workers.

Who are “excepted” employees?

A. In the context of shutdown furloughs, the term “excepted” is used to refer to employees who are funded through annual appropriations who are nonetheless excepted from the furlough because they are performing work that, by law, may continue to be performed during a lapse in appropriations. Excepted employees include employees who are performing emergency work involving the safety of human life or the protection of property or performing certain other types of excepted work. Agency legal counsels, working with senior agency managers, determine which employees are designated to be handling “excepted” and “non-excepted” functions.

Will excepted employees be paid for performing work during a shutdown furlough? If so, when will excepted employees receive such payments?

A. Agencies will incur obligations to pay for services performed by excepted employees during a lapse in appropriations, and those employees will be paid after Congress passes and the President signs a new appropriation or continuing resolution.

(Note: Presidential appointees who are not covered by the leave system in 5 U.S.C. chapter 63 are not subject to furlough, but are also barred from receiving pay during a lapse in appropriations. These Presidential appointees will be paid after Congress passes and the President signs a new appropriation or continuing resolution.)

Will employees who are furloughed get paid?

A. Congress will determine whether furloughed employees receive pay for the furlough period.

Will employees receive a paycheck for hours worked prior to a lapse in appropriations?

A. Under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) guidance issued in 1980 (below), employees will receive this paycheck. Although the payroll for the last pay period before the lapse will be processed potentially during a period of furlough, the minimum number of payroll staff necessary for this process will be excepted from furlough for the minimum time required to issue the checks, including checks for the last pay period before the lapse. This guidance can be found in OMB’s August 28, 1980, Bulletin No. 80-14, Shutdown of Agency Operations Upon Failure by the Congress to Enact Appropriations, paragraph 3.b.(1) (Appropriations and funds). OMB has reviewed and concurs in this answer.

May an excepted employee be permitted to earn premium pay (e.g., overtime pay, Sunday premium pay, night pay, availability pay) during the furlough period?

A. Yes. Excepted employees who meet the conditions for overtime pay, Sunday premium pay, night pay, availability pay and other premium payments will be entitled to payment in accordance with applicable rules, subject to any relevant payment limitations. Premium pay may be earned but cannot be paid until Congress passes and the President signs a new appropriation or continuing resolution.

Are agencies required to pay performance awards to Senior Executive Service (SES) career appointees during a shutdown furlough?

A. No. The applicable law (5 U.S.C. 5384) and regulation (5 CFR 534.405) do not specify when an SES performance award must be paid to a career appointee, nor do they provide a basis to pay awards when no appropriated funds are available for that purpose. Therefore, if a shutdown furlough intervenes, an agency may defer payment of SES performance awards until after the furlough, when funds are available.

May agencies deny or delay within-grade or step increases for General Schedule and Federal Wage System employees during a shutdown furlough?

A. It depends on how long the shutdown furlough lasts. Within-grade and step increases for General Schedule (GS) and Federal Wage System employees are awarded on the basis of length of service and individual performance. Such increases may not be denied or delayed solely because of lack of funds. However, extended periods of nonpay status (e.g., because of a furlough for lack of funds) may affect the timing of such increases. For example, a GS employee in steps 1, 2, or 3 of the grade who is furloughed an aggregate of more than 2 workweeks during the waiting period would have his or her within-grade increase delayed by at least a full pay period. (See 5 CFR 531.406(b).)

Will an employee “exempt” from furlough be paid for a holiday that occurs during a shutdown?

A. Employees are “exempt” from furlough if they are not affected by a lapse in appropriations. As such, an “exempt” employee will be paid for a holiday according to the normal rules governing holidays.

Will furloughed employees be paid for a holiday that occurs during a shutdown furlough?

A. Furloughed employees will not receive pay for a holiday that occurs during a shutdown furlough unless authorized by subsequent legislation.

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About the Author

Ian Smith is one of the co-founders of FedSmith.com. He enjoys writing about current topics that affect the federal workforce.